New Cogora report reveals what GP primary care networks are really thinking

The NHS’s newest organisations, primary care networks, are going to be central to the health service in the next few years, and Cogora has produced a new report revealing their leaders’ true feelings about the state of healthcare in England.

The report ‘Primary Care Networks: Controversy, Covid and collective working’, is based on a survey of around 200 clinical directors of the 1,250 PCNs across England, as well as in-depth interviews with them and integrated care systems leaders, who will be the lead commissioners of health services over the coming years.

PCNs have been further thrust into the limelight since the outbreak of the Covid pandemic, and now they are responsible for providing the bulk of the Covid vaccination programme – the biggest public health programme this country has ever seen.

The publication, with its unrivalled access to healthcare leaders, is intended to inform those working in healthcare about these new organisations, as well as support industry in staying up to date on how PCNs are evolving and how it can best engage, educate and support PCNs as their new NHS customer to improve local care.

The report highlights the effect PCNs have already had on primary care since they were established in July 2019, as well as analysing the adequacy of funding for PCNs, the effect of COVID-19 on the evolvement of the networks, and how other NHS structures and industry fit within this change of scenery.

It reveals that there is support among leaders for the project, with 68% of the PCN respondents feeling positive to very positive about it, but it also found that there are a number of challenges they are facing.

The workload involved in the role of clinical directors to manage their PCN is far more time-consuming than expected or costed. One big concern is that clinical directors spend more time on PCN work than they are funded for: around 61% spend more than nine hours a week on PCN work, which takes GPs away from frontline.

The additional roles reimbursement scheme (ARRS) that brings funding to hire pharmacists, social prescribers and other roles is far less flexible than one would have hoped for. Common concerns include struggling with recruitment for the specified roles, not being able to use all of the funding, inadequate funding, and staff that is needed is not included in the scheme, resulting in only 42% of the ARRS funding being used in 2019/20.

However, despite problems around funding, PCNs are clear as to what they expect to be spending their budgets on over the next five years. Clinical directors think PCNs should focus on mental health (40%), elderly care (36%), and diabetes and obesity care (14%).

Merry Christmas from Cogora

With year-end quickly approaching, the Cogora team would like to wish you a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

2020 brought new challenges and new ways of working. Covid-19 had a major effect on healthcare professionals’ media and educational consumption, with the industry then forced to look at ways to embrace these changes for the future.

Across our media brands we saw a greater demand for access to information and guidance as it emerges and the need for a reliable and trusted source to deliver it. Regular Covid-19 specific news articles have consistently proven to be the most popular type of content, so our streams of updates attracted swathes of online traffic. All our brands set up dedicated Covid-19 sections on their websites to help readers easily navigate the myriad of information related to the crisis.

With only three face-to-face events delivered before the pandemic hit, our media brand Events team pivoted to virtual events and, through Autumn, over 6,500 healthcare professionals logged in to our Pulse, Nursing in Practice and Management in Practice Events to experience live and on-demand webinars and visit virtual exhibition stands.

Cogora: The Agency hosted numerous advisory boards and roundtable meetings, both face to face and virtual, across many different therapy areas with delegates ranging for c-suite personnel to clinical multi-disciplinary teams in primary and secondary care. Included was what was meant to be a two day live conference in the field of rare diseases, which instead became a highly successful virtual meeting.

Delegates from across the world were able to learn and engage with leaders in the field. Meeting feedback was so well received that a second meeting is already being planned for 2021. The annual Primary Care Respiratory Academy Roadshow also had to be converted to series of regional interactive webinars with over 600 attendees.

Other highlights included the development and launch of an app for young people with cystinosis as they transition from paediatric to adult care, the launch of a digital hub hosting varied resources including animation, clinical paper summaries and talking head videos as well as CPD accredited learning modules.  

Within our CME division, PCM Scientific, we hosted our 18th annual IOTOD conference in a virtual environment for the first time, with over 350 delegates from over 40 countries in attendance across the two day live-streamed event. Two new educational platforms were launched in cardiology education for a European and USA audience, we hosted educational webinars discussing the diagnosis and management of allergies during a beyond Covid-19 in five local languages, and launched a series of educational e-Learning modules within the areas of coeliac disease, thyroid cancer and acute myeloid leukaemia across our educational platforms.

Healthcare Worker Safety

The Insight team recently successfully delivered a roundtable on Healthcare Worker Safety, which was attended by seven key opinion leaders, with representations from across Europe.

This meeting is expected to fuel the development of publications and shape the strategy towards addressing healthcare worker safety in Europe. In the meantime, the team are also working on a project focusing on the structure of oncology multi-disciplinary teams in hospitals across Europe, where the collected insight will be used to inform the client’s market access strategy.
 
 

Cogora: Market Access is awarded at ISPOR Europe 2018

We are thrilled to announce that the Cogora Insight and Market Access team were the recipients of this year’s Best New Investigator Research Poster Presentation Award at ISPOR’s 21st Annual European Congress in Barcelona.

The award recognises the scientific merit of poster presentations as only the top 10% of accepted research abstracts, based on peer review scoring, are eligible for the award. To be selected as the best of the top 10% in this category is a particularly impressive achievement for the team given the calibre of the other entries.

Cogora’s Senior Insight and Market Access Analyst, Ejike Nwokoro, attended ISPOR to present the winning poster and to judge several other research contributions in turn.

The poster provided a retrospective review of the reimbursement decisions made by the Commission d’Evaluation des Médicaments at Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) in 2017 and the underlying rationale for medicinal products with insufficient actual medical benefit.

If you missed us at ISPOR, you can access the full poster online or contact the Insight and Market Access team for more information.

ISPOR is the world’s leading educational and scientific organisation for health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) and their applications for healthcare decision-makers. Each year, ISPOR organises a European conference to highlight the latest research and publications in the sector.

Cogora: Market Access provides our clients with strategy and evidence-generation solutions that maximise the return-on-investment for products throughout their lifecycle. For more information on how we can support you please contact our Market Access team.

Research Poster Presentation Award

We are thrilled to announce that the Cogora Insight and Market Access team have been identified as a semi-finalist for the Research Poster Presentation Award at ISPOR Europe 2018 in Barcelona. 

With only the top 10% of accepted research abstracts, based on peer review scoring, eligible for a research poster award this is a great achievement. 

Cogora’s Senior Insight and Market Access Analyst, Ejike Nwokoro, will be attending ISPOR to present the poster.

Modelling the cost effectiveness of alcohol interventions- methodological hurdles

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is the agency in England responsible for creating guidelines on the treatment of diseases and prevention of illnesses.1

Over the years, NICE has developed a widely recognised reputation based on the robustness of the methodology it applies in the appraisal of clinical interventions. However, in 2005 it also acquired the remit to produce guidelines for public health interventions.2 Through its Centre for Guidelines (CfG), NICE makes recommendations for England based on a thorough review of what is known from research and practice about the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of interventions and broader programmes.3, 7

Although the value of economic evaluation as a tool to determine value for money is hardly in doubt, actual implementation in the context of public health interventions presents a unique challenge. This is because the applied methods were originally developed for constructing clinical guidelines and are based on the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM),4 rather than the relatively newer concept of evidence-based public health. Cost-effectiveness analysis of public health interventions is made difficult by the breadth of the evidence base for such interventions, different analytic levels of possible explanations, and length of the causal chain between interventions and the desired public health outcomes.2

To manage these difficulties, NICE adopts a ‘social determinants and health inequalities’ approach when designing public health guidelines.3 Furthermore, the framework within which such guidelines are developed ensures the multiple analytical levels of explanation for an observed effect are accounted for, and that four specific vectors (population, environment, society and organisations) are used to articulate the mechanisms of cause and interventions.3

Cogora’s Senior Insight & Market Access Analyst, Ejike Nwokoro, attended a recent meeting of a NICE Public Health Advisory Committee (PHAC) which further illustrated the adaptation of economic modelling approaches for public health interventions. As part of the development of a new NICE guideline, the meeting participants discussed the effectiveness and economic evaluation of various school-based alcohol interventions (targeting children and young people aged between 11 and 18 years). 6

Click here for more on the proposed economic modelling approaches.

Cogora sits at the heart of a highly engaged community of over 220,000 healthcare professionals. Our Insight & Market Access division combines HEOR expertise with an in-depth knowledge of reimbursement structures and requirements to provide solutions that maximise ROI for our clients’ products.

For more information on our HEOR capabilities and offerings please contact:
Ejike Nwokoro, MD MPH
Senior Insight & Market Access Analyst
E: ejikenwokoro@cogora.com
T: +44 (0)20 7214 0529

General Practice Prescribing Trends in England and Wales

An analysis of prescribing trends provides credible insight into changes in clinical practice and can facilitate the identification of spending patterns and cost-saving opportunities for the NHS. Given this value, the Cogora Insight & Market Access team have carried out an analysis of primary care prescribing in England and Wales for the 2016 calendar year.

Overall trends

Prescriptions for diabetes drugs, respiratory corticosteroids, analgesics, antiepileptics and oral nutrition products were associated with the highest spend on prescriptions for 2016. Together, the total Net Ingredient Cost (NIC) for these therapy areas amounted to £3.3bn, making up 35.1% of the total NIC for all prescriptions in all general practices in England and Wales in 2016 (£9.5bn). Furthermore, compared to 2015, there was an increase in the quantity of prescriptions for diabetes drugs and antiepileptics whereas analgesics, respiratory corticosteroids and oral nutrition products witnessed a fall in the number of prescriptions relative to 2015.

Diabetes drugs

There was a 5.2% rise in the NIC spend for diabetes drugs, from £992.9m in 2015 to £1.0bn in 2016, perhaps a sign of the increasing burden of diabetes on the NHS. Of the aforementioned five therapy areas, diabetes drugs were associated with the highest NIC spend. Similar to 2015, the largest proportion of NIC spend associated with diabetes in 2016 was observed in The Midlands and East England (29.6% of total NIC) while North England was reported to have the lowest proportion (27.7% of the total NIC).

Respiratory corticosteroids

Although prescriptions for respiratory corticosteroids were responsible for the second highest spend in 2016, in terms of associated NIC, the number of units prescribed appears to have plateaued relative to earlier years (1.2% fall compared with 2015). Our analysis also revealed an 8.5% decrease in the number of units prescribed generically, which corresponds with official guidelines stating that generic prescribing of inhalers should be avoided – due to the risk of patients being unfamiliar with devices and using an incorrect inhalation technique.

Analgesics

Analgesics were one of three therapy areas that witnessed a drop in NIC spend relative to 2015. The number of prescriptions was however relatively unchanged. Approximately one-third (34.6%) of analgesics prescriptions were for opioids, with Morphine as the single most-prescribed opioid (819.5m units, increasing by 8.6% compared with 2015). The North of England was, for the third year running, responsible for the greatest proportion (33.7%) of the total spend on analgesic prescriptions in England and Wales.

Top-performing brands

We carried out an analysis to identify the top performing branded pharmaceuticals in terms of the percentage increase in total NIC between 2015 and 2016. The top two performers were drugs used in diabetes (Performa®and Toujeo®). Four of the top-ten drugs in the list were indicated for diabetes, making this the most prominent therapy area. In terms of the highest numerical increase in total NIC in 2016 relative to 2015, Lyrica®, for the second year in a row, experienced the largest numerical increase (increased by £30.6m). This may, at least in part, be due to the High Court ruling made in February 2015, according to which all prescriptions of pregabalin (active ingredient) for neuropathic pain must be made under the branded name Lyrica®.

Click here for more information and to download the report.

2018 Analyst of the Year Award Finalist

We are pleased to announce that Cogora: Insight is, for the second year running, shortlisted for the Best of Business Intelligence (BOBI) Analyst of the Year Award.

As part of the competition, the team analysed numerous data sets containing various healthcare data and produced sales forecasts and an interactive dashboard to be used by a fictional sales manager.

If your company is attending the BHBIA conference dinner, where the BOBI awards will be announced, on 15 May and would like to meet up with the team to learn more about our analytics and data tool solutions please email ellenmurphy@cogora.com

 

How NICE’s new META Tool will help the medtech industry

Cogora: Market Access reports from the launch event for NICE’s new META Tool, held on 3 July 2017.

Payers and manufacturers both want to provide patients with quick access to new healthcare interventions. However, getting there can be difficult, not least when there is a mismatch between manufacturers’ evidence and payers’ expectations. This can cause unnecessary delays that do not only increase the cost to manufacturers but, crucially, compromise patient care by delaying access to new technology.

For the past nine years, NICE has provided early scientific advice to manufacturers to help guide their data collection strategies and improve their chances of reimbursement. However, improving health is not just about pharmaceuticals – medical device, diagnostics and other tech manufacturers are increasingly important players in the provision of healthcare. In recognition of this, NICE launched on 3 July 2017 their new Medtech Early Technical Assessment (META) tool, designed especially for the medtech industry.

The META Tool aims to provide manufacturers with affordable advice that will help them develop an evidence base that aligns with payers’ expectations, ultimately leading to quicker access for patients. The tool follows a Health Technology Assessment (HTA) structure and allows manufacturers to either gain advice from NICE or a specialist organisation. Non-NICE facilitators are organisations with experience in business development for SMEs, cost-effectiveness evaluations and NHS healthcare structures that have been trained by NICE on the HTA and META Tool process.

Following completion of an online application where the manufacturer describes their problem and specifies which facilitator they wish to engage with, they have a telephone discussion with the facilitator of their choice who would then review their data and produce a report with advice on what the evidence gaps are and how the manufacturer should best address them in order to produce an argument that is convincing to payers and commissioners. The report also contains information on which other organisations and HTA bodies the manufacturer should approach, such as the High Cost Devices Portal, the Office for Market Access or other related research organisations.

Feedback from NICE’s initial user testing has been very positive with manufacturers in particular highlighting the value of understanding what the gaps in their evidence base are, how they should best address these gaps and understanding the questions payers are likely to ask and being able to prepare for these. Feedback also included comments on how the advice has helped manufacturers make better use of limited resources by not investing in the wrong tests, understanding who their optimal market is and helping inform their value proposition.

The launch of the META Tool not only recognises the importance of medical device and diagnostics manufacturers to improving patients’ health but is also a sign of the ever-increasing collaboration between payers and manufacturers, which will ultimately benefit patients and manufacturers alike.  

2017 Best of Business Intelligence Challenge Award

We are pleased to announce that our Head of Cogora Insight, Ellen Murphy, was on the winning team for the 2017 Best of Business Intelligence (BOBI) Challenge Award.

The BOBI Awards are a set of highly prestigious awards given to business intelligence professionals through the BHBIA, and the only healthcare-specific business intelligence awards in the UK.

The 2017 BOBI Challenge (sponsored by MSD) consisted of a one day business simulation competition which focused on analysing and advising on the commercial opportunities for a fictional, innovative health monitoring technology.

In their announcements, the judges stated that the winning team “presented logical, balanced and persuasive arguments that told a story and inspired confidence at each stage of the challenge. Their projections and recommendations were backed up by strong rationale. They displayed strong, supportive teamwork”.

Have a look at our case studies for a few examples of how we have previously helped clients refine their strategy, make portfolio decisions and create bespoke data tools to support their field teams. For more information on our business intelligence solutions, please contact ellenmurphy@cogora.com

How do CCGs decide what drugs to include on their local formulary?

The introduction of clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England in 2013 saw much of the decision making and budget powers that previously sat at a national level devolved to the newly set up CCGs. This in turn created a new group of regional payers of importance to the pharmaceutical and medical device industry.

CCGs are, among other things, responsible for developing and maintaining regional formularies. These are either managed by an individual CCG’s formulary group or, in some instances, by a joint formulary group working across two or more CCGs and/or acute trusts. A drug that has received a positive technology appraisal (TA) by NICE should automatically be included in CCG formularies within three months of NICE’s decision. However, CCGs can conduct their own appraisals of drugs that have not undergone a TA and that are considered relevant to the local population. As such, CCG formulary groups function as gatekeepers to the uptake of drugs that have not undergone a national level assessment.

How should they operate?

NICE’s guidelines for how CCGs should manage regional formularies recommends that regional formulary groups involve a mix of locally relevant stakeholders in their decisions. Stakeholders that NICE recommends including are clinical networks, patient groups, local people and communities and relevant manufacturers. If CCGs conduct local appraisals and evidence synthesis, the guidelines further state that CCGs should ensure there are individuals with the specialist skills necessary to undertake these activities available. Such specialist skills include literature searching, critical appraisal and interpreting and contextualising evidence.

What did we do?

We wanted to find out how local formulary groups actually work, what stakeholders they involve in their formulary decisions and what data they consider and prioritise during decision making. To this end, we surveyed 32 selected commissioners from across England.

What did commissioners tell us?

  • Clinical groups are part of (97%), or consulted by (84%), almost all CCGs’ formulary groups. Conversely, patients and patient representative groups, who NICE guidelinesrecommend are included in decision making, are only part of, or consulted by, a minority of local formulary groups (22% to 41%)
  • Most CCGs (73%) require both budget impact (BI) and cost-effectiveness (CE) data when evaluating drugs for inclusion on the local formulary. Overall, CCGs are more likely to require CE estimates that are based on national, than on CCG specific, data (75% versus 50% of CCGs). An opposite trend is seen for BI estimates, for which local formulary groups are more likely to request estimates based on CCG specific (58%), rather than national data (33%), data
  • Most formulary groups conduct an in-house critical appraisal of clinical data in submissions (75%) and over half conduct their own BI or CE estimates (58%)
  • Most CCGs have at least one member on their formulary group with formal training in how to conduct a critical appraisal of clinical data (83%). Conversely, despite the importance of health-economic data to formulary decisions, only 25% of CCGs surveyed had a member of the formulary group with formal training in how to appraise such data.

What does this mean?

  • There is demand for CCG specific data in submissions. Most CCGs require both BI and CE data in formulary submissions and, when BI estimates are requested, CCGs prefer for these to be based on local data. If assisting a local champion with preparing a formulary submission, manufacturers and consultancies working with them should ensure they clearly state the economic impact that uptake of the product would have on local services
  • CCGs may require support in developing in-house expertise. Despite the importance of health-economic data for formulary submissions two-fifths of surveyed CCGs do not conduct their own CE or BI analyses and only one one-quarter has a person on their formulary group with expertise in how to appraise such data. To ensure funding decisions are made to the highest standards, CCGs may therefore require further support from NHS England in developing and retaining professionals with the necessary skills to conduct a critical appraisal of formulary submissions
  • Patients may be underrepresented in formulary decision making. Despite recommendations to involve patients and patient representatives when developing and reviewing local formularies, these groups are only included or consulted by between one-fifth and two-fifths (22% to 41%) of surveyed CCGs’ formulary groups. As a result, important user views could be missed during decision making

The data described above were included in a conference poster presented at ISPOR’s 19th Annual European Congress. For a copy of the poster, please email ellenmurphy@cogora.com

Prescribing review: What were the main trends in 2015?

Primary care is responsible for approximately 90% of all patient interaction with the NHS and, as such, general practice prescribing data provide valuable insight into NHS spending.

We therefore analysed general practice prescribing data from England and Wales and identified the key prescribing trends of 2015.

Click here to access the full report

Overall trends

We found that the total net ingredient cost (NIC) associated with primary care prescriptions had increased from £9.16 billion in 2014 to £9.58 billion in 2015. Similar to what we found in our 2014 prescribing review, the drug types associated with the highest total NIC spend were diabetes drugs, respiratory corticosteroids, analgesics, antiepileptics and oral nutrition products, in descending order.

Opioids

Opioids are effective and common forms of pain relief. However, they are associated with a known risk of dependence and addiction. It is therefore interesting that, for the second year in a row, there was an increase in the prescription of strong opioids. Specifically, the quantity of strong opioids tablets and capsules prescribed in English and Welsh general practices had increased by a staggering 10% relative to 2014.

Diabetes drugs

Ohe total NIC spend on diabetes drugs in 2015 was £992 million. Interestingly, the highest spend was seen in CCGs that were described as deprived urban areas with younger people and ethnic diversity, particularly with Asian and Black minorities. The finding that demand for diabetes drugs is much higher in certain sociodemographic and ethnic groups implies that cost-savings could be achieved if targeted campaigns were conducted in these groups. This was also noted by Dr Ahmad, Clinical Director of Dementia and Diabetes in Merton CCG and Diabetes UK Clinical Champion, who commented that the data beg the question why more is not done to address the problem of diabetes in ethnic minorities.

Antiepileptics

Analysis of antiepileptic prescribing data also revealed interesting findings. It has previously been argued that demonstrating bioequivalence to an originator antiepileptic drug is not sufficient to guarantee clinical equivalence because of the narrow therapeutic window of some antiepileptics and that, as a result of this, switching patients to different manufacturer’s drug could result in therapeutic failure.  Against this background, the MHRA has previously recommended that patients on certain antiepileptics (Category 1 antiepileptics) are maintained on the same version of the drug that they began treatment with. However, in spite of this, our analysis of prescribing data showed that approximately half of all category 1 antiepileptics were still prescribed generically in 2015.

Top-performing brands

We also identified the branded pharmaceuticals with the highest performance in 2015. For the second year in a row, the respiratory corticosteroid Seretide® was the branded pharmaceutical with the highest total NIC spend (£164 million). However, both the total number of Seretide® units prescribed, and the associated total NIC, had decreased between 2013 and 2015. Considering the recent introduction of cheaper generic versions of the drug in the UK it seems likely that Seretide®’s market share will continue decreasing over the coming year.

Other branded pharmaceuticals to note are Lyrica® and Incruse® Ellipta®, identified as the branded pharmaceuticals with the greatest numerical increase in total NIC and the greatest percentage increase in total NIC, respectively, relative to 2014.

ABPI ‘Real world evidence’ workshop report published

In September 2015, the Academy of Medical Sciences, in partnership with the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, held a joint workshop on ‘Real world evidence’.

The ABPI represents innovative research-based biopharmaceutical companies, large, medium and small, leading an exciting new era of biosciences in the UK. The ABPI is recognised by government as the industry body negotiating on behalf of the branded pharmaceutical industry, for statutory consultation requirements including the pricing scheme for medicines in the UK.

The workshop brought together participants from across industry, regulatory, academia and policy to explore the acceptability of real world evidence in regulatory and Health Technology Assessment decision-making, aspirations for the use of this evidence in a regulatory context, challenges to the acceptability and steps to overcome these.

The report summarises the presentations and discussions from the meeting, which highlighted the potential of real world evidence to significantly impact how medicines are evaluated.

Click here to download the workshop report, and further information on the meeting can be found on the Academy’s policy project page.

Research: Most prescribed products in 2014 revealed

Media and marketing services company Cogora has analysed 2014 general practice prescriptions from England and Wales to identify the year’s biggest movers and shakers, and set out its findings in a new report. General Practice Prescribing Trends in England & Wales, 2014 Annual Review.

Key overall findings in the report include:

  • The total cost associated with prescriptions issued by general practices in England and Wales rose from £8.91 billion in 2013 to £9.16 billion in 2014. This increase (2.9%) far exceeded the 2014 inflation (0.5%) indicating a real increase in cost to the NHS
  • There were large regional variations in the cost of prescription per registered patient. The highest cost per registered patient in 2014 was observed in Wales (£183.24 per registered patient) while the lowest cost per registered patient was observed in London (£111.19 per registered patient)
  • In terms of drug categories, the highest total cost associated with general practice prescriptions was for diabetes drugs, respiratory corticosteroids, analgesics, antiepileptics and oral nutrition products, in descending order. Together, these five drug categories accounted for just over one third of the total NIC associated with all English and Welsh general practice prescriptions in 2014
  • The branded pharmaceuticals with the highest total cost associated their prescriptions in 2014 were Seretide, Symbicort and NovoRapid, in descending order. Conversely, the greatest number of prescriptions was issued for Ventolin, Adcal D3 and Clenil Modulite

Therapy area specific findings in the report include:

  • The cost for diabetes prescriptions issued in English and Welsh general practices increased by 7% between 2013 and 2014, with the total spend in 2014 being £902 million
  • The cost of corticosteroid prescriptions issued in English and Welsh general practices was over £754 million in 2014. Comments from a therapy area expert suggest the increased prescribing may, in part, be due to over-prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids rather than an increased clinical need
  • Between 2013 and 2014, there was an increase in the number of prescriptions issued for opioid analgesics. This increase was much higher for strong opioids (+10%), which are associated with increased risk of addiction, than for weak opioid (+2%) analgesics.
  • In line with official prescribing guidelines, the data showed lower levels of generic prescribing for certain types of antiepileptics (51% generic prescribing) than when analysing data from all therapy areas together (82%). However, medical charities are advocating higher branded prescribing due to concerns relating to clinical equivalence of some branded and generic products
  • There was a 12% increase in the cost of prescriptions issued for oral nutrition products such as nutritional supplements and paediatric milk formulae between 2013 and 2014

For more information please contact:

 

Ellen Murphy

Head of Insight

Cogora

T: 44 (0) 20 7214 0576

ellenmurphy@cogora.com
About Cogora

Cogora is an integrated media and marketing services company that sits at the heart of a community of 220, 000 highly-engaged healthcare professionals.

For over 25 years we have produced inspirational and incisive content via a range of brands and channels. These in turn provide the data and insight that gives us a deep understanding of what our audiences want.

We combine these resources to create innovative, flexible solutions for clients looking to access and influence Commissioners, Primary and Community Care Nurses, GPs, Practice Managers, Hospital Pharmacists and Hospital Managers across the UK and Western Europe.